Reference has already been made to the fact that excretory functions are ritualized, routinized, and relegated to secrecy. Natural reproductive functions are similarly distorted. Intercourse is taboo as a topic and scheduled as an act. Efforts are made to avoid pregnancy by the use of magical materials or by limiting intercourse to certain phases of the moon. Conception is actually very infrequent.
When pregnant, women dress so as to hide their condition.
Parturition takes place in secret without friends or relatives to assist, and the majority of women do not nurse their infants. Our review of the ritual life of the Nacirema has certainly shown them to be a magic-ridden people. It is hard to understand how they have managed to exist so long under the burdens which they have imposed upon themselves. But even such exotic customs as these take on real meaning when they are viewed with the insight provided by Malinowski when he wrote:.
But without its power and guidance early man could not have mastered his practical difficulties as he has done, nor could man have advanced to the higher stages of civilization. Spradley and M. Rynkiewich, pp. Cyberspace can be viewed as another location to be explored and interpreted by anthropologists. Urbanowicz believes that the "World Wide Web" is very similar to the period known as "The Enlightenment" in France which, combined with the industrial revolution that began in approximately the 's, created the world that we know today.
However, Internet access in schools varies widely around the world and most schools have yet to offer Web-related courses, according to interviews conducted with full- and part-time students in 16 countries. Among the countries surveyed, Sweden and Canada lead the list in offering students access to the Internet from their schools. The report, titled The Face of the Web: Youth, found that more than nine in 10 students who have access in Australia, Canada, the United States, and Sweden report using the Web to complete their school assignments. It also found that the biggest gap between nations exists in access to schools offering courses about the Internet.
May 21, "International Business Machines Corp. The researchers have found they can sandwich a layer of ruthenium just three atoms thick between two magnetic layers to dramatically increase disk-drive density.
June 25, "Just two weeks after Intel announced the development of new technology it said it would enable processors to reach speeds of 20 GHz [twenty billion cycles per second] , IBM today will announce another advance it says will enable chips to hit GHz as early as August 27, "Intel rolling out 2-GHz Pentium 4 chip The Santa Clara chipmaker likely will slash prices on its flagship product line by as much as 50 percent August 27, "IBM Creates circuit that could lead to smaller, faster chips.
The Wall Street Journal , October 25, "This month marks the 10th anniversary of the Personal Technology column, which began with the following declaration: 'Personal computers are just too hard to use, and it isn't your fault. When this column started in , the average 'IBM-compatible' PC had no sound card built in and could only beep. Most consumer models also had lousy video , lacked a built-in CD-ROM drive or mouse and came without a built-in modem Modems mainly ran at a pitiful 2, bits per second The Internet wasn't yet accessible to average folks, the World Wide Web didn't exist In my first buyer's guide, in December , I suggested buying a PC with four megabytes of memory, a megabyte hard disk and a new-fangled 3.
November 9, : "Bell Labs scientists make transistor from a molecule. That's less than a fourth of the size of the smallest switches now produced. These tiny critters should hit the market around on microprocessors containing more than a billion transistors--a twentyfold increase--and switch at terahertz speeds, or trillions of times a second. How much faster can transistors go? Researchers predict that by around , switches will shrivel to 9 nm Anon, , Business Week , page First posited by Intel Corp.
Moore's Law has held true so far, with Intel's latest Pentium cramming 8 million transistors on a tiny sliver of silicon. The industry is confident that it can achieve even more astounding figures, such as million transistors on a chip. Learn how to use "search engines" and "subject directories" and to connect to the ones in The Meriam Library, please click here Directories and here Search Engines.
Learn how to "weigh" the information available over the Internet! If you "surf" the web and I do , please surf carefully and evaluate wisely: below you have some examples for information concerning "Charles R. Darwin" available on the web, and note the different amounts of data generated by different search engines: evaluate carefully! On August 2, , "search engine hits" for "Charles R.
Darwin" resulted in the following information: Google had , items; Northern Light had 48, items; Alta Vista Search had 61,, items; and MonkeySweat had numerous items! On April 26, , "search engine hits" for "Charles R. Darwin" resulted in the following information: Google had 97, items and Northern Light had 48, items. Obviously , just as with people, all "search engines" are not created equal! Toxic gear is piling up in landfills, but recyclying could help. All this may cme as a surprise to those who thought the Information Age would spawn a cleaner environment [ stress added].
And "multiple" URLs have been provided in case some no longer exist! Note distinctions between. They are a tool for personalizing your access and your path through a Web site.
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During this time Boas achieved a milestone in the History of American Anthropology. In the university conferred on Alexander Chamberlain a doctorate in anthropology. It was the first such academic honor bestowed in America, and Boas took pride in having directed Chamberlain's study. Boas' friend and colleague George Hunt translated the letter into Kwakwala, the language spoken by the Kwakiutl people, and read it alound to the group. Friends: I am Mr. Boas who is speaking to you It is two winters sinze I have been with you, but I have thought of you often Your laws will not be forgotten.
Your children and the white man will understand that the old ways of the Indians were good Canadian officials and missionaries both frowned on the potlatch, criticizing the vast expenditures of wealth necessary for proper validation of chiefly status. So abhorrent did the white Canadians find the potlatch that the government declared it illegal in Putnam had developed the first teaching program in the United States at Harvard University and was trying to get other centers of research and teaching in anthropology established.
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Boas was soon invited to teach at Columbia as well, and he built up the second American teaching program in anthropology there. Putnam went on to persuade Mrs. In the first report on the Department, published in , Putnam explained: The Department of Anthropology was constituted by the Regents of the University of California September 10, [ stress added]. A form of nonmarket exchange. Contrst with egalitarian or rank societies. Hunting and gathering, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture, and iindustrialism are subsistence strategies.
The Human Relations Area Files HRAF is a microform collection ofmostly primary source materials on a large sample of cultures, societies and ethnic groups representing all areas of the world. It is a research tool making available descriptive data on many predominantly non-western and non-literate world cultures.
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Once the basic arrangement of the HRAF Microfiles is understood,the Files can be used for making cross-cultural surveys, for studying a particular culture or cultural trait, for studying cultures in a specific geographical area, and more. Using these two manuals, you will be able to find information in the HRAF Microfiles about one specific characteristic of one particularculture or make a cross-cultural comparison or survey of two or more societies.
The procedure described below will assist you in gathering all the information in the HRAF on a sample research problem. As an example, we will study the custom of "arranged marriages" and answer the following question: "Do the Northern Paiute practice the custom of arranged marriages? Multiple copies of the guides are adjacent to the HRAF microfile cabinets.
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Listings are arranged by OCM Code numbers. Read the category description and also explore the cross references to see if any of the other related OCM subject categories may be useful. Lagace, ed After Sept.
So many things seem less significant now than before Sept. Many of us have had a change of perspective Industrial Continued B. Cyberspace Again! CASTE : A form of stratification defined by unequal access to economic resources and prestige, which is acquired at birth and does not permit individuals to alter their rank. MANA : An impersonal supernatural force inherent in nature and in people.
Mana is somewhat like the concept of 'luck' in American culture. The U. I went there for the good of James Leahy, and I didn't do too badly. The only reason we killed people was simply if we hadn't killed them, they would have killed us and our carriers. As soon as the white man went away, everyone went to look. Their skin is different, we said, but their s smells just like ours.
Colonial domination came late in the day and was short lived--a mere half-century of foreign rule.